Lunes, 10 Abril 2017 07:31

Histoire Argentine: Mémoire, vérité et justice

Written by Noémie Hernandez
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Volunteers visiting the ex ESMA Volunteers visiting the ex ESMA Voluntario Global

Le 24 mars est le Jour de la Mémoire, pour la Vérité et la Justice en Argentine. Il commémore le coup d’état militaire qui est survenu le 24 mars 1976 et qui a instauré la dictature militaire pendant 7 ans.

Tous les ans, le 24 mars, a lieu une manifestation, appelée « Nunca Más »,qui revendique le travail de mémoire. Ayant participé à cette marche, les volontaires ont donc décidé d'aller visiter le « Espacio Memoria y Derechos Humanos ». À l'origine, cet espace rassemblait différentes écoles notamment l'Ecole de Mécanique des Armées (ESMA). Cependant, après le coup d'état de 1976 et durant toute la dictature militaire (1976-1983), cet espace deviendra un des plus importants centres clandestins de détention, séquestration et extermination. Cette dictature a fait 30000 « disparus » et plusieurs milliers de personnes tués. Durant cette même dictature, beaucoup de nouveaux-nés ont été arrachés à leurs parents biologiques et donnés à des familles proches du gouvernement militaire de l'époque. Tous les lieux sont symboliques mais trois ont particulièrement marqués les volontaires.

Le premier lieu est la Casa por la Identidad. Cet espace était l'endroit où, à l'époque, les femmes enceintes étaient séquestrées avant de se voir enlever leurs bébés. Il est désormais, en partie, consacré au travail qu'ont fait las Abuelas de la Plaza de Mayo (littéralement : les grands-mères de la Place de Mai) après la dictature afin que les enfants enlevés puissent connaître leur véritable origine. Le deuxième lieu est la salle « 30000 compañeros presentes » qui rend hommage aux 30000 personnes qui ont malheureusement disparu pendant cette dictature. Une grande partie de ces personnes étaient très jeunes. Dans cet salle, le travail de mémoire se fait à travers des affiches qui rendent hommage à ces personnes là.

Enfin, le troisième lieu est en plein air, là où est exposé la « Carta de un escritor a la Junta Militar » de Rodolfo Walsh. Cette carte fut écrite le 24 mars 1977, soit 1 an après le début de la dictature. Elle dénonce les manières et les agissements de la Junte Militaire. Walsh fut le premier à dénoncer les conséquences de cette dictature et fut tué le lendemain de la publication. Ce centre est donc très important pour que personne n'oublie jamais ce qu'il s'est passé, il n'y a pas si longtemps que ça, en Argentine. Il permet à tout le monde de se rappeler ce que le pays a subi mais aussi, tout le travail qu'on fournit les citoyens afin que le pays se relève. 

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